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2017-11-13 17:24:41 1642 0

Установка Postgresql на Gentoo linux

PostgreSQL — это свободная система управления реляционными базами данных (RDBMS, или СУРБД) с открытым исходным кодом. Она поддерживает такие вещи как транзакции, схемы и внешние ключи, и часто позиционируется как более строго соответствующая стандартам SQL и более безопасная по умолчанию, чем любая другая база данных, коммерческая или нет.

Выполняем синхронизацию репозиориев Gentoo

emerge --sync

setlocale: unsupported locale setting
setlocale: unsupported locale setting
>>> Syncing repository "gentoo" into "/usr/portage"...
>>> Starting rsync with rsync://91.186.30.235/gentoo-portage...
>>> Checking server timestamp ...
Welcome to boobie.gentoo.org / rsync.gentoo.org

Server Address : 91.186.30.235
Contact Name   : mirror-admin@gentoo.org
Hardware       : 2 x Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU 3050 @ 2.13GHz, 3947MB RAM
Sponsor        : EUKhost, Maidenhead, England
.................................

Ставим postgresql из репозиториев

emerge -av dev-db/postgresql

setlocale: unsupported locale setting
setlocale: unsupported locale setting

 * IMPORTANT: 10 news items need reading for repository "gentoo".
 * Use eselect news read to view new items.


These are the packages that would be merged, in order:

Calculating dependencies... done!
[ebuild  N     ] app-eselect/eselect-postgresql-2.2::gentoo  5 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-db/postgresql-9.6.4:9.6::gentoo  USE="nls pam
readline server ssl zlib -doc -kerberos -ldap (-libressl) -perl
-pg_legacytimestamp -python (-selinux) -static-libs -systemd
-tcl -threads -uuid -xml" LINGUAS="-af -cs -de -en -es -fa -fr
-hr -hu -it -ko -nb -pl -pt_BR -ro -ru -sk -sl -sv -tr -zh_CN -zh_TW"
PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET="python3_4 -python2_7 (-python3_5) (-python3_6)"
PYTHON_TARGETS="python2_7 python3_4 (-python3_5) (-python3_6)" 19109 KiB

Total: 2 packages (2 new), Size of downloads: 19113 KiB

Would you like to merge these packages? [Yes/No] 

Программа показывает с какими модулями будет собран пакет postgresql

При необходимости можно добавить или убрать модули с помощью "USE"

Для примера добавим kerberos и уберем из сборки ssl

USE="kerberos -ssl" emerge -av dev-db/postgresql

Calculating dependencies... done!
[ebuild  N     ] app-eselect/eselect-postgresql-2.2::gentoo  5 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] sys-apps/keyutils-1.5.9-r1::gentoo  USE="{-test}" ABI_X86="(64)
-32 (-x32)" 73 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-libs/libev-4.23::gentoo  USE="-static-libs" ABI_X86="(64) 
-32 (-x32)" 512 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-libs/libverto-0.2.5-r1::gentoo  USE="libev threads
-glib -libevent -static-libs -tevent" ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 342 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] app-crypt/mit-krb5-1.14.2::gentoo  USE="keyutils pkinit
threads -doc (-libressl) -openldap (-selinux) {-test} -xinetd" ABI_X86="(64)
 -32 (-x32)" 11978 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] virtual/krb5-0-r1::gentoo  ABI_X86="(64) -32 (-x32)" 0 KiB
[ebuild  N     ] dev-db/postgresql-9.6.4:9.6::gentoo  USE="kerberos nls
pam readline server zlib -doc -ldap (-libressl) -perl -pg_legacytimestamp
-python (-selinux) -ssl -static-libs -systemd -tcl -threads -uuid -xml"
LINGUAS="-af -cs -de -en -es -fa -fr -hr -hu -it -ko -nb -pl -pt_BR
-ro -ru -sk -sl -sv -tr -zh_CN -zh_TW" PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET="python3_4
-python2_7 (-python3_5) (-python3_6)" PYTHON_TARGETS="python2_7 python3_4
(-python3_5) (-python3_6)" 19109 KiB

Total: 7 packages (7 new), Size of downloads: 32017 KiB

Would you like to merge these packages? [Yes/No] 

Вводим "Yes"

 * Fetching files in the background.
 * To view fetch progress, run in another terminal:
 * tail -f /var/log/emerge-fetch.log
 * eselect-postgresql-2.2.tbz2 SHA256 SHA512 WHIRLPOOL size ;-) ...    [ ok ]
>>> Unpacking source...
>>> Unpacking eselect-postgresql-2.2.tbz2 to
 /var/tmp/portage/app-eselect/eselect-postgresql-2.2/work
>>> Source unpacked in /var/tmp/portage/app-eselect/eselect-postgresql-2.2/work
>>> Preparing source in /var/tmp/portage/app-eselect/eselect-postgresql-2.2/work/
eselect-postgresql-2.2 ...
>>> Source prepared.
>>> Configuring source in /var/tmp/portage/app-eselect/eselect-postgresql-2.2/work/
eselect-postgresql-2.2 ...
>>> Source configured.
>>> Compiling source in /var/tmp/portage/app-eselect/eselect-postgresql-2.2/work/
eselect-postgresql-2.2 ...
>>> Source compiled.
.................................................

После установки postgresql выполним инициализацию кластера баз данных

Перед инициализацией произведем настройку postgresql в фвйле /etc/conf.d/postgresql-9.6

cat /etc/conf.d/postgresql-9.6

##########################################################################

# Location of configuration files
PGDATA="/etc/postgresql-9.6/"

# Where the data directory is located/to be created
DATA_DIR="/var/lib/postgresql/9.6/data"

# Additional options to pass to initdb.
# See `man initdb" for available options.
PG_INITDB_OPTS=""
  • PGDATA - определяеи где должны находится файлы настроек
  • DATA_DIR - куда будет установлен кластер базы данных
  • PG_INITDB_OPTS - другие опции (man initdb - полное описание)

Изменение локали и набора кодировок может быть выполнена и после установки, при создании базы данных

Обязательно перед инициализацией устанавливаем системную локаль

eselect locale list

  [1]   C
  [2]   en_US.utf8 
  [3]   POSIX
  [ ]   (free form)

Выбираем en_US.utf8 (если необходима русская локаль то следуем инструкции в статье про локализацию gentoo)

eselect locale set 3

/usr/bin/locale: Cannot set LC_CTYPE to default locale: No such file or directory
/usr/bin/locale: Cannot set LC_MESSAGES to default locale: No such file or directory
/usr/bin/locale: Cannot set LC_COLLATE to default locale: No such file or directory
Setting LANG to en_US.utf8 ...
Run ". /etc/profile" to update the variable in your shell.

Создаем кластер базы даныых и сохраняем все принадлежащие серверу файлы в PGDATA и DATA_DIR

emerge --config postgresql:9.6



Configuring pkg...

 * You can modify the paths and options passed to initdb by editing:
 *     /etc/conf.d/postgresql-9.6
 * 
 * Information on options that can be passed to initdb are found at:
 *     http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.6/static/creating-cluster.html
 *     http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.6/static/app-initdb.html
 * 
 * PG_INITDB_OPTS is currently set to:
 *     (none)
 * 
 * Configuration files will be installed to:
 *     /etc/postgresql-9.6/
 * 
 * The database cluster will be created in:
 *     /var/lib/postgresql/9.6/data
 * 
 * Continuing initialization in 5 seconds (Control-C to cancel) ...    [ ok ]
 * Creating the data directory ...
 * Initializing the database ...
The files belonging to this database system will be owned by user "postgres".
This user must also own the server process.

The database cluster will be initialized with locale "en_US.utf8".
The default database encoding has accordingly been set to "UTF8".
The default text search configuration will be set to "english".

Data page checksums are disabled.

fixing permissions on existing directory /var/lib/postgresql/9.6/data ... ok
creating subdirectories ... ok
selecting default max_connections ... 100
selecting default shared_buffers ... 128MB
selecting dynamic shared memory implementation ... posix
creating configuration files ... ok
running bootstrap script ... ok
performing post-bootstrap initialization ... ok
syncing data to disk ... ok

WARNING: enabling "trust" authentication for local connections
You can change this by editing pg_hba.conf or using the option -A, or
--auth-local and --auth-host, the next time you run initdb.

Success. You can now start the database server using:

/usr/lib64/postgresql-9.6/bin/pg_ctl -D /var/lib/postgresql/9.6/data -l logfile start

 * The autovacuum function, which was in contrib, has been moved to the main
 * PostgreSQL functions starting with 8.1, and starting with 8.4 is now enabled
 * by default. You can disable it in the cluster"s:
 *     /etc/postgresql-9.6/postgresql.conf
 * 
 * The PostgreSQL server, by default, will log events to:
 *     /var/lib/postgresql/9.6/data/postmaster.log
 * 
 * You should use the "/etc/init.d/postgresql-9.6" script to run PostgreSQL
 * instead of "pg_ctl".

Запускаем postgresql

/etc/init.d/postgresql-9.6 start

 * Caching service dependencies ...                  [ ok ]
 * No permission to apply cgroup settings
 * /run/postgresql: creating directory
 * /run/postgresql: correcting owner
 * Starting PostgreSQL 9.6 ...                       [ ok ]

Файлы настройки и файлы базы данных хранятся в директории /var/lib/postgresql/9.6/data/

ls /var/lib/postgresql/9.6/data/

base          pg_hba.conf    pg_replslot   pg_subtrans  postgresql.auto.conf
global        pg_ident.conf  pg_serial     pg_tblspc    postgresql.conf
pg_clog       pg_logical     pg_snapshots  pg_twophase  postmaster.log
pg_commit_ts  pg_multixact   pg_stat       PG_VERSION   postmaster.opts
pg_dynshmem   pg_notify      pg_stat_tmp   pg_xlog      postmaster.pid

Пробуем подключиться к postgresql

su postgres -c "psql"

psql (9.6.4)
Type "help" for help.

postgres=# \l
                                 List of databases
   Name    |  Owner   | Encoding |  Collate   |   Ctype    |   Access privileges   
-----------+----------+----------+------------+------------+-----------------------
 postgres  | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.utf8 | en_US.utf8 | 
 template0 | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.utf8 | en_US.utf8 | =c/postgres          +
           |          |          |            |            | postgres=CTc/postgres
 template1 | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.utf8 | en_US.utf8 | =c/postgres          +
           |          |          |            |            | postgres=CTc/postgres
(3 rows)






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